Barrister at Gray’s Inn, London (1978). After he graduated with a BA in French and Medieval History, he studied international marketing. He wrote a thesis entitled ‘Export Marketing to the CPR (China) – a Practical Approach’ (1973). Having worked in industry (pharmaceutics and engineering), he became a lawyer and specialised in international law and European Union law in various fields (commercial, maritime, aeronautics, banks, finance, white-collar crime, and human rights). He was a partner in a law firm (bilingual English/French), a corporate lawyer (HSBC/Midland, Citibank, Fidelity, Allianz/PIMCO) and legal advisor in a regulatory group (the Investment Management Regulatory Organisation). He is also the founder and honorary Vice-President of the Franco-British Lawyers Society. He was appointed a ‘Chevalier dans l’Ordre du Mérite maritime’ by the French government.