PhD in political science (IEP Paris). He was the director of a number of large companies. He has written several books including ‘La grève froide’ (pub. Octarès, 1994), ‘Les décisions absurdes’ (pub. Gallimard, 2002 and pub. Folio, 2004), ‘L’enfer de l’information ordinaire’ (pub. Gallimard, 2007), and a book entitled ‘La fiabilité des décisions’ (due to be published in March 2012 by Gallimard). He was on the board of the National committee for scientific research, and is on the editorial board of ‘Gérer & Comprendre’ and ‘Négociations’.